Who finds it funny? And why?

Generally, I have very high respect for good comedians as I think it’s one of the most difficult art forms. In addition, various forms of identity, ranging from gender to race to sexual orientation, are often the subject of comedy, which I think can be very difficult to approach. For my part, I think this is okay in certain circumstances. It depends on how it is done.

I recently learned of the concept of “punching up.” The general idea of punching up is that as a comedian, jokes about certain populations are frowned upon if those populations are less privileged than yours, which would be “punching down.” For example, making fun of homeless people generally doesn’t go over well, since most comedians themselves are not homeless. As such, if you’re going to make those jokes, you should punch up – make jokes about people with more privilege.

There are some comics from relatively privileged backgrounds who punch down, and while I go back and forth about whether it’s okay, the joke is often clearly meant to be a caricature of people who are racist/sexist/etc. The joke is meant to highlight the absurdity of the bigotry that does exist. In this post, I don’t want to make any claims about the general quality of any specific comedian as much I want to provide examples of this comedy. Daniel Tosh, as I interpret it, does this fairly frequently and is often allowed to do so because this kind of comedy is a part of his track record.


While again, I’m ambivalent about whether I think this is okay for Daniel Tosh to do, I recognize that part of what makes me uncomfortable is much less about what he is saying and much more about what others might be hearing.

I think something similar can be said about comedians who poke fun at people who are like them. Iliza Shlesinger does this fairly frequently, poking fun at women (of a certain social class).

In a similar vein, Russell Peters also has a fairly famous/infamous bit about immigrant parents. (At this point, my post is just me posting YouTube videos.)


To a certain extent, I think people are allowed to poke fun at themselves and the social groups with which they identify. I think there’s something humbling about taking a look at cultural and social traditions within identity groups and discussing the ways in which we often take them for granted. And of course, there are times when those jokes edge on being reflective of some sort of internalized bigotry, but in general, I don’t think many comedians are doing that.

What worries me about this type of humor is the rest of the audience. In many ways, it’s similar to the way I felt about Sheryll Cashin’s talk at Vanderbilt. Broadly, I can trust black people to watch a Todrick Hall sketch and not take the video as some source of information about what black people are like.

What about white people, watching this video? What about men watching Schlesinger’s work? This problem was particularly apparent to me during the Antoine Dodson craze back in 2010, with the remixed “Bed Intruder” song.

Creative, yes. But I was around a lot of white people at that point in my life, and it became apparent to me during this period that we were all laughing, but for very different reasons. I got a lot of comments from people that indicated that the foundation of their reaction was embedded in their own stereotypes about black people. This video, to them, was just confirmation of what they already believed about black people as a lesser group.

I re-evaluate my position on this pretty much once a week, but overall, I think it’s somewhat unfair that people who wish to make comedy about their own historically marginalized populations have to worry about this. Gay people, in my mind, should be allowed to poke fun at certain things about the gay communities of which they are a part. Of course, there are other problems with the intersections of these identities (saved for another day), but in general, I think this issue is really unfortunate.

Should we, then, ask people to stop this kind of humor? I honestly don’t know the answer. I lean towards no, but I also empathize with the anger expressed by many people in the black community towards black comics poking fun at black people. I get it. My question is whether we should not be allowed to make this kind of humor because of what those in a privileged social class might think. I don’t have an answer. I just hope that we can be more critical of what it means to laugh at identity-specific observational humor. Who is laughing? What are they laughing at? And why?

New resources up: Stata boot camp materials

With moderate success (I think), we just finished running a Stata boot camp for our masters students, who are switching from using SPSS point-and-click to Stata this semester. The materials for running this boot camp are now on the Resources page.

Many thanks to Dominique Baker, Sy Doan, Adam Kho, Chris Marsicano, Olivia Murray, Chris Redding, Luis Rodriguez, and Ben Skinner for piloting and providing feedback on the materials and modules.

My own racism: a reflection

In the same way that I don’t particularly believe in the use of leadership as a label applied to certain people, I don’t know how much I believe in the use of “racist” as a word for people. How many racist ideologies need a person hold to be a racist? How much expression? How many times? To whom? My main problem is that using the term “racist” (most people’s use of the term, that is) (a) abdicates responsibility of non-racists to be critical of themselves and (b) casts racism as a problem with individual people, rather than something broader in which most of us are implicated.

I’m not trying to say that accepting that we all have the potential to be racist means we should be more accepting of racism when we see it. See the following musical number from Avenue Q to see kind this kind of thought.

Growing up, a lot of people used this song to excuse the little actions of racism they’d commit, but that’s not my point. I think this sends the wrong message.

Here, I reflect on one example of my own racism.

Growing up, even though I lived in a relatively diverse environment and was surrounded by family members and friends from all kinds of different backgrounds, I was still inundated by media highlighting white men as generally more attractive than black men. It’s hard, as a kid, not to start to take some of those messages to heart. When I reached teenage-hood and became interested in more romantic and otherwise intimate relationships, I found myself fundamentally not attracted to black men.

Throughout high school and even part of college, I acknowledged this fact to myself, and while it made me vaguely uncomfortable, I lived with it and acted by it. Out of all of the men with which I found myself infatuated in my daily life, not a single one was black. The only black man I would acknowledge as being attractive to me was Usher, and even in that instance, I think I was just looking for an example that could make me feel better about the trends I acknowledged in my own attractions.

Some might, in a weird psychoanalytic kind of way, chalk this up to a kind of internalized racism in my part,to the extent that I did not accept my own blackness as a part of my identity. This may have been a part of it, sure, but in trying to rekindle the emotions I felt during that period of my life, I think it was much simpler than that. white men were generally attractive. Black men were not. That was just the way I felt.

It wasn’t until about halfway through college when it really started to eat away at me that this kind of trend was rooted in racism, rather that it just being an unfortunate personal preference. It was at that point that I decided to do something about it. I’m not going to go into detail about how I went about that work here, but I believed very strongly that I would be able to reorient myself away from those racist ideologies to something more just. Over time, I think I did reorient my way of thinking with more-than-moderate success.

My point here is that racism, while socialized, isn’t just something that people have to accept and live with as a part of their being. Combating racism requires acknowledging the ways in which you hold racist ideologies and waking up every day with a commitment towards thinking differently. I’m not saying that I don’t still have ways in which I can grow and try to fix the racist (and sexist, homophobic, etc.) things that still linger in my consciousness. All I’m saying is that I believe positive work is possible. I believe it is possible to become less racist, and I think we would all benefit from doing the real emotional work to at least try.

Maybe some regular research thoughts?

I think I’m going to start putting some of my thoughts on interesting research articles down on paper (keyboard?) every now and then. But I figured that if I’m going to do that, I should mark down some disclaimers about these.

First, my purpose in writing these thoughts is not to provide a comprehensive review of the articles, and I will often not be discussing some of the parts of the article. So to that end, no one should ever use what I write as a substitute for actually reading the original publications.

Second, I will attempt as best as possible to write any criticisms I have as open to discussion. I’m fallible, like anyone else, and it’s possible that I’m missing an important piece in my interpretation of an article. Any thoughts greatly appreciated.

That’s all I can think of for now. I’ll likely add more as I explore this endeavor.

Diversity for the sake of diverse learning spaces

In 2003 (Grutter v. Bollinger), the United States Supreme Court ruled that the affirmative action policies of the University of Michigan Law School were not unconstitutional. In the dissent, Justice Rehnquist noted that school administrators cited the need for a diverse student body to “ensure that these minority students do not feel isolated or like spokespersons for their race; to provide adequate opportunities for the type of interaction upon which the educational benefits of diversity depend; and to challenge all students to think critically and reexamine stereotypes.” Similarly, the ruling (authored by Justice O’Connor) stated that the Constitution “does not prohibit the law school’s narrowly tailored use of race in admissions decisions to further a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body.”

This justification is also used here at my own institution, as per the academic strategic plan: “Diversity, in the broadest sense of the term, is absolutely critical to ensuring excellence in our core missions of discovery and learning. The human condition is fundamentally shaped by the context in which we have lived, learned, and now reside. A university offers an exceptional opportunity to bring together people from different personal and scholastic backgrounds in the name of higher learning. The experience of being an African-American is different from that of being a Hispanic. The same is true for gender, ethnic groups, social class, place of origin, sexual orientation, and countless other genetic, cultural and environmental parameters. It is also true that engineers have different perspectives than lawyers, as well as classicists compared to chemists. At one level, all such claims are obvious. The human condition, and human lives, is shaped by these different experiences, and they give rise to very different prisms by which each individual thinks about problems and opportunities and then approaches solutions.”

There are parts of these notes with which I sympathize, and parts that make me deeply uncomfortable. This discomfort isn’t because I think the statements are incorrect; there are various pieces of evidence circulating (especially recently) that cite the benefits that diverse student bodies bring to academic spaces. Nor do I think that there’s any particular problem with stating these benefits, since I do think it highlights the value of perspectives from historically excluded and marginalized populations.

My problem is when this is the only justification provided. In short, it’s not my job as a person of color or as a gay man to enhance your academic experience.

This isn’t to say that I don’t also benefit from a diverse learning space. My undergraduate institution was very diverse in many ways, and I think it really contributed to a healthier environment to the extent that I did not particularly feel isolated, and I did learn a great deal from those with backgrounds different from mine.

For me, though, the most important reason to include more “diverse” populations (in quotes to acknowledge the possible oddity of calling any particular population diverse) is not because of what it brings to others, nor is it particularly because those people will benefit from having more “diverse” colleagues. The most important reason is related to the fact that persons of color (speaking from my own identifications) have historically been excluded from quality institutions of higher learning, which is something (I assume) we agree is morally wrong.

Briefly, I’d add that my feelings here extend beyond academia. The same justification is often used elsewhere, especially in community development. Throughout my life, I’ve seen various news reports about the extent to which, for example, having gay men move into a neighborhood benefits the entire community. While I appreciate the magical powers that these reports have assigned to me in terms of my queer ability to raise the property values of my neighbors’ homes, it still feels tokenizing, as if they need me as a gentrifier (which has its own problems) more than I deserve the right to live in a safe community.

My overall point is that the compelling reasons for diversity should not primarily be because of its ability to increase the excellence of an institution. It should be because that institution has a commitment to upholding justice.